Archive for March, 2017
Friday, March 31st, 2017
Thursday, March 30th, 2017
Declining donations, dues, grants or sponsorship funds may lead to not-for-profit budget deficits. But you can reduce the risk of cash flow crunches by making relatively minor changes to your cash management practices.
The sooner your organization accumulates cash, the better your cash flow. For example, consider moving your fundraising calendar ahead. By sending an appeal in July rather than November, your nonprofit may receive significant cash in late summer. Then mail reminders in November to those who haven’t yet given, and ask summer givers to make a year-end gift, too. By doing this, you’re more likely to see contributions in December as well.
Try to collect installment donations earlier, too. Instead of waiting for each payment of a four-quarter gift, contact those donors who are clearly predisposed to giving. Asking for the remaining donation in advance may speed up the process.
Get billing right
Billing errors, whether in the amounts invoiced or the recipient’s mailing address, can delay payments and hamper cash flow. Take steps to get the details right on every invoice. Request updated address or credit card information in every encounter with a payer and review reports of declined credit cards so that recurring payments can be made without delay.
Also make your invoices clear, clean and easy to understand. Use text descriptions rather than internal billing codes. The recipient should have no questions about what the charges are for or how they’re computed. Confused payers may just set their bills aside.
And consider issuing bills earlier. If a charge is incurred at the beginning of the month, but you wait until the end of the month to bill — and then allow a 30-day grace period for payment — you’re likely waiting at least two months to collect.
Managing cash outflow goes hand in hand with accelerating cash inflow. If you’re facing severe deficits, you may need to decelerate your bill payment or negotiate extended payment plans with vendors.
When your nonprofit is in a pinch, you must prioritize disbursements. But be careful: Although employee compensation can account for as much as 70% of some nonprofits’ budgets, such disbursements generally can’t be delayed.
Even in relatively flush economic times, nonprofits need to take a proactive approach to managing cash flow. Contact us for more cash management tips.
Wednesday, March 29th, 2017
In business, and in life, among the most important ways to manage risk is through insurance. For certain types of companies — particularly start-ups and small businesses — one major threat is the sudden loss of an owner or hard-to-replace employee. To safeguard against this risk, insurers offer key person insurance.
Under a key person policy, a business buys life insurance covering the owner or employee, pays the premiums and names itself beneficiary. Should the key person die while the policy is in effect, the business receives the payout. As you formulate and adjust your succession plan, one of these policies can serve as a critical safeguard.
Costs and coverage
Key person insurance can take a variety of forms. Term policies last for a specified number of years, typically five to 20. Whole life (or permanent) policies, which are generally more expensive, provide coverage as long as premiums are paid, and they gradually build up cash surrender value. This value appears on a business’s balance sheet and may be drawn on, if the business needs working capital.
The cost of key person insurance also depends on the covered individual’s health, age and medical history, as well as the desired death benefit. When budgeting for premiums, bear in mind that premiums generally aren’t tax deductible. On the flip side, death benefits typically aren’t included in the business’s taxable income when received.
In terms of coverage limits, insurers may quote a rule of thumb of eight to 10 times the key person’s annual salary. But every business will have different cash flow needs when a key person unexpectedly dies. A more accurate estimate typically comes from evaluating lost income (or value), as well as the costs of finding and training a suitable replacement.
An important decision
If you’ve already chosen a successor, you can buy a policy that covers both of you. And if you haven’t, it may be even more critical to buy coverage on your life to protect the solvency of your business. Please contact our firm for help deciding whether key person insurance is for you.
Tuesday, March 28th, 2017
If you suffered damage to your home or personal property last year, you may be able to deduct these “casualty” losses on your 2016 federal income tax return. A casualty is a sudden, unexpected or unusual event, such as a natural disaster (hurricane, tornado, flood, earthquake, etc.), fire, accident, theft or vandalism. A casualty loss doesn’t include losses from normal wear and tear or progressive deterioration from age or termite damage.
Here are some things you should know about deducting casualty losses:
When to deduct. Generally, you must deduct a casualty loss on your return for the year it occurred. However, if you have a loss from a federally declared disaster area, you may have the option to deduct the loss on an amended return for the immediately preceding tax year.
Amount of loss. Your loss is generally the lesser of 1) your adjusted basis in the property before the casualty (typically, the amount you paid for it), or 2) the decrease in fair market value of the property as a result of the casualty. This amount must be reduced by any insurance or other reimbursement you received or expect to receive. (If the property was insured, you must have filed a timely claim for reimbursement of your loss.)
$100 rule. After you’ve figured your casualty loss on personal-use property, you must reduce that loss by $100. This reduction applies to each casualty loss event during the year. It doesn’t matter how many pieces of property are involved in an event.
10% rule. You must reduce the total of all your casualty or theft losses on personal-use property for the year by 10% of your adjusted gross income (AGI). In other words, you can deduct these losses only to the extent they exceed 10% of your AGI.
Have questions about deducting casualty losses? Contact us!
Monday, March 27th, 2017
Monday, March 27th, 2017
Here are some of the key tax-related deadlines affecting businesses and other employers during the second quarter of 2017. Keep in mind that this list isn’t all-inclusive, so there may be additional deadlines that apply to you. Contact us to ensure you’re meeting all applicable deadlines and to learn more about the filing requirements.
- If a calendar-year C corporation, file a 2016 income tax return (Form 1120) or file for an automatic six-month extension (Form 7004), and pay any tax due. If the return isn’t extended, this is also the last day to make 2016 contributions to pension and profit-sharing plans.
- If a calendar-year C corporation, pay the first installment of 2017 estimated income taxes.
- Report income tax withholding and FICA taxes for first quarter 2017 (Form 941), and pay any tax due. (See exception below.)
- Report income tax withholding and FICA taxes for first quarter 2017 (Form 941), if you deposited on time and in full all of the associated taxes due.
- If a calendar-year C corporation, pay the second installment of 2017 estimated income taxes.
Friday, March 24th, 2017
Thursday, March 23rd, 2017
Your not-for-profit can’t generally reimburse employees for business expenses tax-free just because staffers submit expense records. However, you can if you have a properly executed accountable plan. Under such a plan, reimbursement payments will be free from federal income and employment taxes for recipient employees and not subject to withholding from their paychecks. Additionally, your organization benefits because the reimbursements aren’t subject to the employer’s portion of federal employment taxes.
Follow the rules
Of course, rules and conditions apply. The IRS stipulates that all expenses covered in an accountable plan have a business connection and be “reasonable.” Additionally, an employer can’t reimburse an employee more than what he or she paid for any business expense. And the employee must account to you for his or her expenses and, if an expense allowance was provided, return any excess allowance within a reasonable time period.
An expense generally can qualify as a tax-free reimbursement if it could otherwise qualify as a business deduction for the employee. For meals and entertainment, the plan may reimburse expenses at 100% that would be deductible by the employee at only 50%.
It’s your organization’s responsibility to identify the reimbursement or expense payment and keep these amounts separate from other amounts, such as wages. The accountable plan must reimburse expenses in addition to an employee’s regular compensation. No matter how informal your nonprofit, you can’t substitute tax-free reimbursements for compensation employees otherwise would have received.
Keep good records
The IRS requires employers with accountable plans to keep good records for expenses that are reimbursed. This includes documentation of the:
You also should require employees to submit receipts for any expenses of $75 or more and for all lodging, unless your nonprofit uses a per diem plan.
Put it in writing
While an accountable plan isn’t required to be in writing, formally establishing one makes it easier for your nonprofit to prove its validity to the IRS if ever challenged. Contact us for more information and help setting up an accountable plan.
Wednesday, March 22nd, 2017
Like many businesses, yours may allow retirement plan participants to take out loans from their accounts. Such loans are governed by many IRS and Department of Labor (DOL) rules and regulations. So if your company offers plan loans, your plan document must comply with current laws — including setting a “reasonable” interest rate.
Neither the IRS nor DOL provides a set percentage for plan sponsors to use. Yet both require the rate to be “reasonable.” The IRS asks if the interest rate is similar to local interest rates and to what local banks charge individuals for similar loans with similar credit and collateral. Meanwhile, DOL regulations say that an interest rate is reasonable if it’s equal to commercial lending interest rates under similar circumstances.
The DOL provides several examples of how to determine the interest rate. For example, suppose the plan loan interest rate is set at 8%, but local banks offer between 10% and 12% for similar circumstances. In this example, the loan will fail to meet the reasonable standard.
Keep in mind that the plan participant pays the interest to his or her own retirement plan account. That’s one reason why charging an interest rate that’s lower than what local banks are charging isn’t considered reasonable. The purpose of charging interest on retirement plan loans is to help prevent long-term harm to the participant’s retirement nest egg.
If your plan fails to assess a reasonable interest rate, participant loans may result in a prohibited transaction. What does this mean? Prohibited transactions are certain transactions between a retirement plan and a disqualified person. Disqualified persons taking part in a prohibited transaction must pay a tax.
A prohibited transaction includes the lending of money or other extension of credit between a plan and a disqualified person. However, the laws specifically exempt plan loans from the prohibited transaction list as long as they comply with applicable rules. If your interest rate isn’t reasonable, the plan loan may lose its exempt status and become subject to the prohibited transaction tax.
Ensuring you’re offering a reasonable plan loan interest rate is an ongoing task. Review your plan document and loan policy statement to determine whether the plan sets an interest rate. You may need to update the document to comply with the more recent regulations and interest rates. We can help you with this review, as well as in calculating a reasonable rate.
Tuesday, March 21st, 2017
If you have a child in college, you may be eligible to claim the American Opportunity credit on your 2016 income tax return. If, however, your income is too high, you won’t qualify for the credit — but your child might. There’s one potential downside: If your dependent child claims the credit, you must forgo your dependency exemption for him or her. And the child can’t take the exemption.
The maximum American Opportunity credit, per student, is $2,500 per year for the first four years of postsecondary education. It equals 100% of the first $2,000 of qualified expenses, plus 25% of the next $2,000 of such expenses.
The ability to claim the American Opportunity credit begins to phase out when modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) enters the applicable phaseout range ($160,000–$180,000 for joint filers, $80,000–$90,000 for other filers). It’s completely eliminated when MAGI exceeds the top of the range.
Running the numbers
If your American Opportunity credit is partially or fully phased out, it’s a good idea to assess whether there’d be a tax benefit for the family overall if your child claimed the credit. As noted, this would come at the price of your having to forgo your dependency exemption for the child. So it’s important to run the numbers.
Dependency exemptions are also subject to a phaseout, so you might lose the benefit of your exemption regardless of whether your child claims the credit. The 2016 adjusted gross income (AGI) thresholds for the exemption phaseout are $259,400 (singles), $285,350 (heads of households), $311,300 (married filing jointly) and $155,650 (married filing separately).
If your exemption is fully phased out, there likely is no downside to your child taking the credit. If your exemption isn’t fully phased out, compare the tax savings your child would receive from the credit with the savings you’d receive from the exemption to determine which break will provide the greater overall savings for your family.
We can help you run the numbers and can provide more information about qualifying for the American Opportunity credit.